|Alfred the Great (871-99) built a fleet of ships to resist the Vikings. © NMM|
There followed a long period in which most of Londinium was abandoned. However, the Saxons did establish settlements outside the old Roman wall.
The settlements grew and by the 8th century the historian Bede called Lundenwic (the Anglo-Saxon name for London) 'a trading centre for many nations who visit it by land and sea'.
Foreign trade was also stimulated by the seafaring and enterprise of the Anglo-Saxons, who were skilled boat-builders.
|A Viking long-ship in a heavy sea. © NMM|
London was the biggest prize on the east coast. However, it was a safe and well-fortified place and far enough inland to cause problems for invaders. It therefore remained the safest store place and market and resisted many attacks.
The Viking menace encouraged the building of ships for defence. These vessels would also have been used for trade in times of peace.
|Queenhithe Dock, the Upper Pool, in 1923. © NMM|
The Archbishop built a dock known as Ethelredshithe. 'Hithe' was the Anglo-Saxon word for a landing place.
It was later re-named Queenhithe when it was owned by Queen Matilda, wife of Henry I. It remained one of the principal quays in the port for centuries. Even in the 20th century, cargoes were still unloaded at Queenhithe.
Alfred's policy to develop London and encourage trade began a process of building, settlement and commercial expansion that made the city a busy port.
|The Viking ruler of England, King Canute. © NMM|
London was so wealthy that when Canute became king it was taxed one-eighth of the total for the whole of England. That amounted to 5 tons of solid silver.
From the late 11th century London was also the home of the Navy and the chief centre for building both merchant ships and warships.