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Sea chart of the passage from England to the Baltic.

Sea chart of the passage from England to the Baltic.
Sea chart of the passage from England to the Baltic.
© National Maritime Museum, London
Description: William Boroughs had taken part in Richard Chancellor's voyage from Deptford in 1553 aimed at finding the north-east passage to the Far East. The route to the east was not found, but Chancellor landed in Russia and succeeded in opening up trade with Ivan the Terrible at Moscow. As a result, the Russia Company was formed in 1555. Boroughs became the Company's chief pilot. He was also a navigational theoretician, investigating the problems of using the compass near the North Pole. In 1576 he made a chart of the North Atlantic for Frobisher's voyage in search of the North West Passage. The chart shown here is a working tool, showing only those coastlines which would be needed for reference on a trading voyage and the names of the key ports. The bar-scales are aligned to the courses making up the passage.
Creator: William Boroughs
Date: c. 1570
Credit line: National Maritime Museum, London
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