Howard and reform
When the 1776 Act came up for renewal in 1779, John Howard began a long campaign against the hulks. He supported the idea of large and airy prisons where convicts could labour together, but sleep in a separate cell. Howard was supported by Jeremy Bentham and others.
|Three convicts and a guard. |
After years of lobbying, Millbank Prison was eventually built in 1816 to the west of the Houses of Parliament and adjacent to the Thames. Unfortunately, due to its management regime and architectural design, it proved unsuccessful.
Despite this setback, there was increasing pressure from reformers and objections to transportation by the colonies. This led to the development of model prisons at Pentonville, Brixton and Chatham to replace the hulks. The era of the hulks was finally brought to a close after the Defense burned off Woolwich Docks in 1857.
The new jails followed a version of the colonial labour regimes and the transportation system was changed to incorporate the notion of exile. From then on, prisoners would serve a probationary period in one of the new jails before they were pardoned on condition of being deported.
Pardoned criminals would then join an emigrant ship like the St Vincent. Built in 1829, she was used as a convict ship before being fitted out for emigrants going to Australia.
|Plan of the emigrant ship St Vincent. |
The plan shows bunk spaces for the emigrants on the tween below deck. Even the biggest cabin, shown right, is less than 3m square (10 feet square). Yet her owners said she was 'light and airy for both families and single persons'.