Defending the East End
Londoners were warned that German air attacks on their city were likely and civil defence preparations had been started some time before.
Air raid precautions
The preparations included:
People were told to stockpile hoses and fire buckets and learn the air raid warning signals.
This air raid precautions poster issued by East Ham Borough Council called on householders to put up government-made shelters in their gardens.
Defending the city
As well as building shelters and enforcing the blackout, the Civil Defence was responsible for the emergency services (fire, ambulance and police) and also for the Air Raid Precautions (ARP) staff.
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