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The 19th-century port

Introduction
Canals and distribution
London Docks at Wapping
Tea trade and the East India Docks
Developments at Rotherhithe and St Katharine
Steamships and the Royal Victoria Dock
The hub of empire: Imperial trade
Millwall Docks and the Royal Albert Dock
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Developments at Rotherhithe and St Katharine's

The Surrey Docks

A view of the Commercial Docks at Rotherhithe.
View full size imageThe Commercial Docks at Rotherhithe, c. 1813.
In 1807, the Commercial Dock Company bought the Greenland Dock at Rotherhithe. It was used for the North European trade in timber, hemp, iron, tar and corn.

The company eventually owned all the docks built at Rotherhithe over the following 70 years. These included:

  • No. 1 warehouse at the South Dock at Surrey Commercial Docks
    View full size imageNo. 1 warehouse at the South Dock, Surrey Commercial Docks. 
    the Baltic Dock (1809) 
  • the East Country Dock/South Dock (1807) 
  • the Norway Dock (1811)
  • the Albion Dock (1860)
  • the Canada Dock (1876).

In 1813 the docks enclosed 16 hectares (40 acres) of water plus warehouses, bonding yards and wharfs. Dockyards needed vast spaces and specialised buildings.

Timber specialists

Commercial Docks.
View full size imageShipping at the Surrey Commercial Docks, c. 1827.
The Surrey Commercial Docks were the only docks on the south side of the river. Apart from the Greenland Dock and East Country Dock, in which general cargo from many countries was unloaded, they were devoted to the handling and storage of timber.

To help transport cargoes landed at the docks, the Grand Surrey Canal Company (1801) built a waterway to link the Thames at Rotherhithe with Deptford, Peckham and Camberwell.

Public protest

To the Chairman Deputy Chairman, Directors and Secretary of the St. Katherine's Dock Company. This Plate representing the Works in their Progress as they appeared in the month of January 1828
View full size imageSt Katharine Docks under construction in January 1828.
The most westerly of the new docks was St Katharine, beside the Tower of London. The St Katharine Docks Bill was passed in 1825 and work began in 1827. More than 11,000 people were displaced, without compensation, by the works.

Public protests at the destruction of the ancient hospital, churches and other buildings did however result in a huge compensation bill for the company. The engineer Thomas Telford was commissioned to build the new docks, which took just two years to complete.

St Katharine Docks open

This Plate representing the Opening of the St Katherine Docks, on Saturday the 25th of October 1828
View full size imageThe opening of St Katharine Docks on Saturday 25 October 1828.
St Katharine Docks opened in 1828. The complex had two connected basins, the east dock and the west dock. It had a long quayside for such a comparatively small area of enclosed water.

The docks were linked to the river through an entrance lock, 55 metres (180 feet) in length, fitted with three pairs of gates. When the docks were designed, the lock could handle either one large or two small ships.

Two steam engines designed by James Watt pumped water to maintain the water level in the docks 1.2 metres (4 feet) above the river.

Giant warehouses

St Katharine's Docks from the Basin. Plate 158
View full size imageSt Katharine Docks as viewed from the basin.
Warehouses were built on the quayside so that cargo could be unloaded directly from ships into the storerooms. The warehouses were six storeys high, up to 150 metres (500 feet) long and up to 50 metres (165 feet) deep.

Writing in 1851, Henry Mayhew, in his London Labour and the London Poor, paints a fascinating picture of life at the docks:

Quotation marks left

The lofty walls...enclose an area capable of accommodating 120 ships, besides barges and other craft. Cargoes are raised into the warehouses out of the hold of the ship without the goods being deposited on the quay...in one-fifth of the usual time.

Before the existence of docks...eight days were necessary in the summer and 14 in the winter, to unload a ship of 350 tons. At St Katharine's, however, the average time

Quotation marks right
now occupied in discharging a ship of 250 tons is 12 hours, and one of 500 tons, two or three days.

Valuable cargoes

Warehouses at St Katharine's Dock.
View full size imageWarehouses at St Katharine Docks.
St Katharine Docks primarily handled valuable cargoes such as ivory, shells, sugar, marble, rubber, carpets, spices and perfumes. The indigo house (a section of one of the larger warehouses) handled compressed blocks of the deep blue powder.

At the scent factory, special machines extracted flower essences from the fat they were shipped in. This was a process invented to avoid duty on the alcohol base used in commercial perfumes.

Ivory chess set
View full size imageCaptain James Cook's ivory chess set.
The Marble Quay handled fine quality material that came from Italy. Ivory, which was used for carving and decoration, was such a major luxury product that one of the warehouses at the dock became known as the Ivory House. The ivory chess set shown here belonged to Captain James Cook.

Growing coastal trade

Limehouse, 1859
View full size imageLimehouse Wharf, c. 1859.
The construction of enclosed docks like St Katharine was resented by the wharf owners. They believed that they would take trade away from the riverside wharves.

They need not have worried. Although the docks handled the larger ships from abroad, the wharves continued to receive the growing coastal trade. This included the ships carrying cargoes such as coal and food along the British coast.

Good news for wharfowners

Black Eagle Wharf with the schooner Express of Alnmouth.
View full size imageBlack Eagle Wharf, Wapping, with the schooner Express of Alnmouth, c. 1856.

After the dock companies lost their import monopolies in the 1820s and 1830s, an increasing number of ships in the docks did not unload their cargoes on to the quays but over the side into lighters, which then carried them to the riverside wharves and warehouses.

The reason for this was the 'free water clause' that was included in the early dock acts. This allowed lighters to enter the docks to unload ships without paying dock charges.

Black Lion Wharf, 1859.
View full size imageBlack Lion Wharf, 1859.
In this way the owners of the cargoes could avoid expensive quayside and warehouse charges in the docks and go to the cheaper riverside wharves. By the end of the 19th century, up to 80% of the cargoes of ships in the docks were unloaded into lighters and taken to the wharves.

 


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Glossary
Cargo
Discharge
Dock
Dock company
Lighter
Quay
Warehouse
Wharf

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