Bazalgette and London's sewage
|London's sewage problem|
The traditional methods
For centuries, human waste had been removed from the cesspits as 'night soil' and taken away for use as fertilizer on fields around London.
The Metropolitan Commission of Sewers
With the situation worsening, something was finally done in 1847. The Metropolitan Commission of Sewers was formed to tackle the problem.
The Commission's first act was to close the cesspits. This turned out to be a disaster, as the city's sewage now found its way into the Thames.
Before long, the river itself was little more than a sewer. Londoners were quick to notice how rapidly their river had declined. The satirical magazine Punch published several memorable cartoons deploring the disgusting state of the Thames.
The smell was only a small part of the problem, as London obtained most of its drinking water from the Thames. This made Londoners particularly vulnerable to water-borne diseases such as cholera.
The Great Stink
In 1856 the Metropolitan Board of Works had been formed to carry out large public works in London, including the construction of a sewage disposal system. However, it did not have sufficient funds for such a task.
As so often before - and since - very little was done until powerful people felt their interests were being threatened.
For many years, the smell caused by sewage in the Thames became particularly unbearable during the summer.
During the summer of 1858 it was so bad that even Members of Parliament suffered, and curtains soaked in chemicals were used to keep the smell out of the House of Commons. Unsurprisingly, the necessary funds for a sewage disposal system were soon made available.