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When the Tilbury Docks first opened for business, it traded in a number of goods, including madeira brought in by the West Africa Line; casks of sausage skins packed in brine and India chutney. Materials such as bales of jute and packaged timber and wood pulp also passed through the docks.
|Aerial view of Tilbury Docks. © NMM|
During the 20th century, Tilbury Docks became well known for their grain trade. The grain terminal, which opened in 1969, was one of the fastest discharging installations in the world, at 2000 tons per hour. The grain silo on land had a 100,000 ton capacity and there were adjacent private flourmills ready to process the grain.
Tilbury Docks opened for business just as steam vessels began to take over the shipping trade. The location of the dock system on the Thames and the size of the basins meant that Tilbury was a very attractive dock to use. Grain ships of 50,000 tons were regularly unloading at Tilbury during the 1930s. There were also the usual lighters and barges, ready to transfer the goods into the city.
|Container ships at Tilbury Docks. © NMM|
In contrast to other docks in London, the luxury liner trade used Tilbury Docks. Passengers embarked and disembarked at Tilbury, making use of the good rail links and staying at the local hotels. During the war, Tilbury was used to convert the liners into armed merchant cruisers.
|Model of the Northfleet Hope container terminal, Tilbury. © NMM|
Towards the end of the 1960s, Tilbury Docks underwent a £30 million programme of improvements. These enabled the large ocean-going cellular container ships to dock and be turned around in 36 hours. These refits enabled the docks to continue in business significantly longer than other dock systems in London.
- The site covered 450 acres of marshland in Essex, opposite Gravesend.
- The engineer in charge was A. Manning. The project was initially contracted out to Kirk and Randall. However, the company Lucas & Aird completed the project.
- The project cost £2.8 million.
- The docks covered 56 acres of water and was 10 metres deep. Three branch docks, (East Branch, Centre Branch & West Branch) led off the main dock basin, each one 61-91 metres wide.
- The lock was the largest on the Thames at 213 metres by 24 metres.
- The docks contained 50 miles (80 kilometres) of railway sidings, which connected all the berths to the Eastern Counties railway.
- There was a large warehouse in Commercial Road, close to Aldgate. The railway trucks went right inside the warehouse, in order to unload the goods in the dry.
- A hotel was constructed to cater for the many first class passengers that were expected to board and disembark at Tilbury.
- A large number of houses were constructed for the officers, foremen, police and dockers who worked in the docks.
|3 July 1882||Parliamentary Act is passed approving the construction of docks by the East and West India Dock Company|
|17 July 1882||Construction of Tilbury Dock begins|
|17 April 1886||The opening of Tilbury Deep Water Dock. The vessel 'Glenfruin' made the inaugural entry.|
|August 1886||The Clan Line leaves the Royal Albert Dock and begins to use Tilbury as their base|
|1 January 1889||Amalgamation to form the London and India Docks Joint Committee|
|1908||Scruttons begin to use an electric conveyor belt to transport bales of jute|
|1912||Construction of the extension for P&O berths begins|
|1916||The P&O extension is complete|
|1921||The 305 metre-long reinforced concrete river cargo jetty is opened|
|1929||The impounding stations and a new dry dock is built|
|1930||The new Western Lock is constructed. A new passenger terminal opens.|
|1944||The Tilbury Hotel is destroyed by enemy action|
|1957||The Ocean terminal is complete|
|1963||Construction of new dock extensions begin|
|1966||Completion of the new dock extensions|
|1969||A £6 million grain terminal is opened|
|1970||OCL container service begins|
|1978||A deep riverside berth for large container ships opens|
|2004||Tilbury Docks are still in use, especially for passenger liners|
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